What is Free Radical and Antioxidant? Why we do we need Antioxidant?

We are exposed to different sources of free radical everyday day, either from external sources such as environmental pollutants, cigarette smoke, radiation, or from internal stress and free radicals generated by our cellular powerhouse, mitochondria via normal metabolic processes. 

These free radicals are highly unstable and reactive, which reacts with cellular molecules to achieve cellular stability by stealing an electron from nearby compound, forming a chain reaction. Our body naturally synthesize antioxidant enzymes to neutralise these free radicals. However, overproduction of free radicals cause damage to cells and fosters mitochondrial dysfunction, which contributes to oxidative stress, a major mediator of the aging process, age-associated diseases, and chronic degenerative diseases.


Fighting fatigue with mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant – Natural Astaxanthin

The powerful mitochondrial nutrient

Thus, a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant – natural astaxanthin, should slow down the aging process and prolong longevity healthily. Upon ingestion, astaxanthin predominantly accumulates in the mitochondria. As the mitochondrial membranes are susceptible to oxidative stress, which impairs energy production; astaxanthin is able to neutralise free radicals in the bilayer of the membrane, hence contributes to the maintenance of mitochondrial function and counteract stress-related fatigue.4

Hongo et al. demonstrated that natural astaxanthin is simultaneously effective against both mental and physical fatigue.5 Participants treated with 12 mg of natural astaxanthin for 8 weeks shown improvements in clarity of thinking, concentration, motivation and mood. Due to the unique property of crossing blood-brain-barrier, astaxanthin supplementation is associated with significantly improved recovery from mental fatigue as well as neurodegenerative disease such as Alzheimer’s.6 Improvement in alertness and focus indirectly alleviates physical fatigue.


“Healthy mitochondria lead to less oxidative stress and more energy production, which forms the crucial foundation of a robust health.”


“Healthy mitochondria lead to less oxidative stress and more energy production, which forms the crucial foundation of a robust health.”

4. Sztretye M, et al. Astaxanthin: A Potential Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant Treatment in Diseases and with Aging. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2019).
5. N. Hongo, et al., “Randomized Controlled Trial of the Anti-Fatigue Effects of Astaxanthin on Mental and Physical Loads Simulating Daily Life,” Journal of Clinical Therapeutics and Medicines32(7), 577–591 (2016).
6. M. Katagiri, et al., “Effects of Astaxanthin-Rich Haematococcus pluvialis Extract on Cognitive Function: A Randomised, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study,” J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr. 51(2), 102–107 (2012).

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Free Radicals and Singlet Oxygen